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Good images Would recommend for anyone studying urban design or doing urban studies. Good images to complement the text as well. May 05, Mainak rated it really liked it. I have read the book, relating to my thesis topic. The book has a good approach to look at urban design from a visual and perceptual dimension.

The perceptual dimensions and urban design

However a more objective approach to this area of subjective matter is required as a whole. Jan 01, Amy Do rated it liked it. There were some very detailed discussions off the different aspects and challenges of urban design. However, I would've liked more in depth discussion of case studies and more examples outside of the US and Europe. Mar 11, Ausra added it. View 1 comment. Sep 15, Satria added it. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers.


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Readers also enjoyed. Goodreads is hiring! If you like books and love to build cool products, we may be looking for you. About Matthew Carmona. As a statistical model to analyze the results of the experiment, the authors chose the quadratic regression model with maximal or minimal values.

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However, during the experiment, seven records were missing, and eventually valid values were used for the analysis. Table 3 illustrates the percentages and numbers of participants for each control variable. As illustrated, the participants were evenly selected from both universities and gender groups. Table 5 illustrates the results of the analyses for the eight dependent variables. The five models in Table 5 are for the five intuitive qualities of the squares i.

The models estimated the coefficients of the test variables by controlling the characteristics of the participants. Quadratic regression estimates on the intuitive qualities of the public squares and their behavioral suitability for optional and social activities. Results suggest that when the height of surrounding buildings is lower than the optimum suggested by theorists, people might feel that an urban public square is more open, cozier, better, and more suitable for optional and social activities.

People may perceive the magnificence and dauntingness of squares in a different way than they perceive the other six qualities of the squares. Some control variables also demonstrated significant relationships with the intuitive qualities and behavioral suitability of the squares.

Upper grade students juniors and seniors, as well as graduate students tended to report lower scores than lower grade students for magnificence, coziness, overall goodness, and the behavioral suitability for all three types of activities Table 5. This might be because when students take more urban design courses, they have a higher standard for evaluating the quality of a public square. For other control variables, no consistent pattern at a significant level was observed among the eight models. For the university variable, participants from G University tended to report higher scores for openness than those from C University.

For the travel experience variable, participants who had traveled in Western cities for longer than 6 months tended to report higher scores for magnificence than those who had not traveled overseas. Participants who had traveled in Western cities for less than 6 months tended to report lower scores for the suitability of the squares for optional activities than those who had not traveled overseas. Participants who had traveled only in Oriental cities tended to report higher scores for magnificence and dauntingness than those who had not traveled overseas.

The model demonstrates the tendency of respondents to provide lower scores later in the evaluation. Nonetheless, as only one out of the eight models demonstrated this discrepancy, it would be reasonable to regard it as a coincidence rather than an experimental design error. We can speculate the following possible causes for this discrepancy. First, it might be due to different aesthetical preferences between experts and laypersons. Scholars have argued that experienced experts and laypersons experience and evaluate the qualities of buildings and spaces differently [ 48 , 49 ].

For example, Mohammad et al. Of course, further experiments involving both experts and laypersons should be conducted in order to determine whether the differences in perception between experts and laypersons actually affected the results of this study. Second, the difference of the times might be another possible cause of the discrepancy. Third, this discrepancy might be due to the limitations of the exploratory nature of this study. As the authors explained in Section 3. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of coincidence between the theoretical ratios and the observed ones in other contexts, that is, squares having other conditions.

Public Places Urban Spaces : The Dimensions of Urban Design

The second issue to discuss is the appropriateness of suggesting one global model integrating the subdivided results for the eight dependent variables. Therefore, the authors asked the participants questions about the subdivided qualities of space. However, results of the experiments showed similar patterns for some of the qualities, if not for all. Therefore, it might be possible to propose sub-global models that integrate several qualities, if not one global model for all qualities.

Specifically, the authors divided the qualities of an enclosed urban public square into the following eight categories: openness, magnificence, coziness, dauntingness, overall goodness, and suitability for three types of optional and social activities.


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For the statistical analyses of the experiment results, the authors used quadratic regression models. This suggests that people might feel that a square surrounded by buildings shorter than those claimed by theorists as optimal is more open, cozier, better, and more suitable for optional and social activities. This study contributes to the urban design field by first demonstrating a way in which immersive VR can be utilized to test existing urban design theory and overcome the limitations of existing studies based on 2D visualization methods.

This includes overcoming the problems of viewing angles and the visual distortion created by projecting 3D models onto 2D planes. This was a method chosen deliberately to find homogeneous groups because the nature of this study, which requires the use of HMDs, makes it difficult to experiment with many participants. However, the degree of familiarity with the urban design field might influence the experiment results, as the authors mentioned in the discussion section.

That is, the responses of general citizens might differ from those of experiment participants. Therefore, the results of this study should not be overly generalized and future research on Western citizens is needed to overcome this limitation. The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their excellent suggestions for improving the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Mar 9. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Feb 3; Accepted Mar 6. Introduction As shown in Dempsey et al. Literature Review 2. Use of 2D Visualization Methods in Urban Design Traditional 2D visualization tools widely used in the urban design field include pen-paper sketching and photographs or video clips [ 14 ], p. Experiment Design and Analytical Framework 3. Design of the Experiment To address the research question, the study conducted a visual assessment survey with computer-generated and immersive VR square models.

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Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Sample images of simulated squares captured images of Kubity VR mirroring.